The Purpose and the Distinctiveness of Christian Schools
Hwa Seon Chang (Anyang University))
This article explores the purpose and the distinctiveness of Christian schools which are thecontemporary concerns of church leaders and Christian educators in Korea. Based on this issue, thepurpose of this paper is to provide basic ideas of Christian schools to Christian parents and educators. Inorder to delineate the purpose of this article following specific contents shall be discussed.First, this paper will describe why we need Christian schools today. This question will be discussedbased on the religious nature and cultural aspects of education, God’s mandate and the GreatCommission. Second, the purpose of Christian schools will be described in terms of helping parents toperform their tasks, pupils’ serving the Lord, teachers’ teaching biblically, taking up our cross to followChrist, and God’s glory. Third, five elements will be explored as the distinctiveness of Christian schoolssuch as truth, biblical integration, Christian staff, potential in Christ, and organizational practice.God wants us to establish Christian schools and our students to be educated in Christian perspectives.To accomplish this commissions parents, church leaders and christian teachers need to understand thenecessity, purpose and distinctiveness of Christian schools. Christian schools intend not only to followChrist and glorify God but to help students develop a God-centered world and life view.
Key words: Christian school, Christian school education, purpose of Christian schools,
distinctiveness of Christian schools
Teacher’s Motivation in Christian Education
Byung June Hwang (Hoseo University)
This study is to examine teacher’s motivation in Christian education. Motivation theory has had asignificant impact on education. It is also an important issue in Christian education. For the most part,Christian education has focused on the teacher’s vocation and teaching biblical content. It has paid littleattention to how specific reinforcement and motivation theories influence student learning and teachers inthe Sunday school classroom. How do we invite all students in an educational setting to participate inbiblical learning in the Sunday school classroom? In establishing the basic foundations for education thechurch asks us, Christian educators, to consider: how do we educate our students? It is a significantquestion and it calls us to pay attention to the processes and methods that we use to help people learn.However, to answer this question we must approach it with care. This article will synthesize and analyzea large body of literature which should be read and familiarized with by educational leaders. First, thisarticle will review the current understanding of motivation theories. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivationtheories will be discussed. Also Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in human resource organizationswill be examined. Next this article will explore two motivational theories for teacher motivation. Finally,it will suggest how Christian education students and teachers can be motivated in the Sunday schoolclassroom. Psychic rewards, empowerment and work enrichment will also be discussed as alternativemethods for motivation.
Key words: Teacher, Motivation, Intrinsic, Extrinsic Motivation, Psychic Rewards,Empowerment, Enrichment
Pedagogy on Religious Pluralism in Korea
Sung Eun Kim (Seoul Theological University)
A large portion of the Political functioning of Religious education has hidden connections between aparticular religious higher education curriculum and social, cultural power in that society. In order tounderstand why religious conflict exists, one has to understand the link between the different levels ofunderlying causes. Often, conflict is a disagreement based on one or more combinations of unmetpsychological needs, such as identity, security, control, recognition, fairness, between two or more parties.We do know more about the big religious events than we do know about the concrete role of politicaland ideological causes in creating conflict in our society. The contradiction and the interrelation withinthe Christian, so called fundamental rights and the progressive left, and between the religion and thepolitical ideological superstructure are the ultimate determinants of the social conflict in Korea. Even inthe Christians they are not sure who could trust for politics involved. Their political influence meant toeconomical interests, status, prestige, as well, which led to conflict in the society.Many people concern about the rise of fundamentalism and military expressions of religion, specially,in the case of Christians.The role of politics of education and religions is very important matters towards sustainable peace inKorea. But usually people pay less concerns, especially in Korea until this year, when the new M.B. Leeregime begun.Through curriculum and other university activities that practices, and the courses they opened in ahigher educational institute, they reinforce and regenerate their religious power, specially, in thefoundations by religious groups. Students are to be socializing values of that religion. Students is to learnto treat the privileges for their own religion and to resist other.This paper tried to analyze the politics that shape and regulate the religious ideology and to find thestarting point of religious peace and reconciliation in Korea.
Key words: Religious pluralism, conflict resolution, religious power, pedagogy, peace.
A Study of Wisdom Literature and the Sages for Educational Ministry
Jung Ki Choi (Seoul University)
James Crenshaw explains “wisdom” in terms of four points. The first point has relation to a scholarlyconvention. He categorizes a collection of Wisdom texts: Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Job, Sirach, and Wisdomof Solomon. The second point is that ancient Near Eastern parallels provide a significant indication thathelps one in deciding correctly what forms wisdom. The third point is that wisdom is a specificperspective toward reality, a world view on what is good for men and women. The last point deals withancient sages. On the basis of these perspectives of the Wisdom Literature, this article explores the worldof wisdom including definitions of wisdom and Wisdom Literature. Then, it investigates the sages inWisdom Literature. Then, it analyzes the relationship between wisdom and Old Testament theology andinvestigates the sages in Wisdom Literature. Finally, it generalizes the findings from the study toeducational ministry.
Key words: Wisdom, Wisdom Literature, Sages, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Teachers
Perceptions of Culture Change and Its Influence on
Spirituality among Korean Evangelical Seminary Students
Og Kyung Lho (Bible Baptist Theological Seminary)
The cultural shift in what is commonly referred to as the postmodern era has vastly influenced theminds and logic of young adult seminarians. An actual transition in different values was observed in howthey expressed themselves, and in how they conducted their daily lives. The purpose of the research isto establish a foundation for spiritual education in Korean evangelical seminaries by investigatingseminarians’ understanding of cultural change and its impact on their spirituality. For this aspect of thestudy, a qualitative research design was employed. Thirty-three evangelical seminary students betweentwenty-two and thirty years of age, from three evangelical seminaries, were selected for this study. Anin-depth interview from the participants’ perspective was conducted to gather data throughout a year, anda constant comparative method of data analysis was used. The findings of this study indicated that youngevangelical seminarians’ spirituality was formed and influenced by socio-cultural factors. Cultural changeaffected young seminarians’ notion of spirituality, be it individual, experiential, or post-modern.
Key words: culture change, evangelical seminary students, seminary education,spirituality, spiritual formation, qualitative research, young adult
John Wesley’s Class Meeting and Its Educational Implication for Christian Nurture
Eun Seung Lee (Sungkyul University)
This article explores Wesley’s class meeting, and what it might teach us today. It is often to debatewhether the church is effective in helping and nurturing church members to live a faithful Christian life.Jesus Christ called people to follow Him on a lifelong adventure of discipleship, and the church wascalled to nurture and to encourage these people as they embark on this journey. Today, churches usevarious small groups to reach people for Christ and to nurture growing Christians in their faith. Wesley’sclass meeting provides some practical and educational insights for the formation of dynamic Christianlearning community in small group setting. Wesley was deeply concerned about the process of shapingpersons into Christians, and his class meeting was a powerful and effective educational system that notonly enabled a large number of people to become dedicated disciples of Jesus Christ, but also brought amoral reformation to the nation as well. The pressing issue for the church today is not that there are notenough Christians but rather that Christians are not growing to maturity. Perhaps the greatest advantageof the class meeting was that it enabled the Methodists to reproduce much of the practice of the earlyChristians, and to fulfill biblical admonitions. People in Wesley’s day found friends, received warmemotional support, and grown in their spirituality in the class meeting. In this sense, Wesley’ssmall-group innovation, the class meeting, reminds us the importance of forming an interactive, caring,and dialogical learning community to reach people for Christ and to nurture growing Christians in theirfaith. Although the class meeting cannot be a perfect model for Christian nurture, it still challenges andinforms today’s churches to practice more of a ‘life’ than an ‘-ism’ in small group setting, and tobreakdown the general congregation into more manageable parts and incorporate more persons into thecaring ministry of the church, building mutual trust and loving relationships and nurturing each person apositive learner who experiences development for holy living.
Key words: Wesley, Class meeting, Christian nurture, Small group, Personal experience,Interactive and dialogical learning community, Transformational learning,Group size and Learning effect
人的生活当中最为重要的却容易疏忽的就是有关“饭”问题, 即食物问题。不仅是现代社会中日趋严重的食物污染, 而且通过饭桌形成的对生命的敬畏、对自然的同伴意识、共同体意识的形成、对上帝经验的仪礼化(formalization)等等社会、宗教层面的意识逐渐丧失。本文从饭桌文化所具有的伦理问题、生态问题、文化问题等方面, 考察上述诸多问题的原因。具体而言, 在伦理问题层面上指出食物问题在新经济主义当中所引起的全球性贫困和饥饿的严重性; 在生态问题层面上指出生产至上主义农业所引起的反生命的食物在全球范围的扩散; 在文化问题层面指出消费至上主义文化所引起的快餐食品蔓延的深刻性。诊断这些现代社会的食物问题, 并为基督教共同体中树立食物文化新的理解, 指出对食物的神学意义如下: 作为以色列信仰共同体历史性开端的出埃及事件, 不仅是他们信仰共同体主要的历史经验, 而且是他们形成共同信仰的主要事件, 特别是以色列通过吗哪和鹌鹑延续他们生存的事件, 说明不取饱满选择自由、不追富饶树立平等的圣经信仰形态。进而, 他们的信仰追求是在这样的饭桌共同体铭刻在他们生活之中的。还有, 在耶稣的行迹里饭桌共同体也是先在地体验上帝之国的主要的事件。因此, 基督教共同体有必要通过对现代社会饮食文化的批判省察进行新的创造性设计。即, 在伦理层面, 设计经验着分享和关怀的饭桌共同体的教育课程; 在生态层面, 关心本土食品, 帮助富有民主市民意识的信仰实践, 加强对生态灵性的教育项目; 在文化层面, 为了形成教会共同体—"—ﾞ经验耶稣人生的饭桌共同体, 要通过一系列教会教育, 重新认识并省察对圣餐礼仪中历史上耶稣所体现饭桌共同体精神, 即, 对怜悯、包容、平等、关怀精神。这就意味着, 通过圣餐所经验的耶稣饭桌, 以虔敬的心立志要和邻舍分享并记忆一同的喜悦, 以此实践耶稣饭桌精神。'
Understanding of Christian Nurture
Eun Hye Park (Sungkyul University)
The Biblical view of nurture is related to distorted human nature. Humans lost their image of God,through Jesus, God shows the concrete goal of our lives which is to regain God’s image. The process ofregaining God’s image is Christian nurture. This is a changing process. Humans need to convert, andalso, to nurture in the Christian faith. Therefore, Christian nurture is based on the developmentalpossibility of human.The content of Christian nurture is Christian faith. The Bible teaches that the goal of Christiannurture is Christlikeness. We need to strive for full maturity and completeness in our spiritual lives.Conversion in Bushnell meant coming more and more to the love of God, in other words, this is aprocess, a growth in grace and the development of a new spirit.Faith as it is defined includes the content of believing and a process toward higher stages, that ismaturity. The goal in faith development is to reach maturity. Maturity in human being has a dynamicpoint of view, that is, a process of becoming. We cannot see maturity as a static point of view. Maturityis not a state of being. Maturity is not the highest moment in developmental stages. Maturity is anongoing process towards growth, and a continuing development.Therefore, the concept of content and development in Christian nurture gives Christian educators someimplications. First, Christian educators need to understand theology and science. Second, spiritual maturitywhich is the aim of Christian nurture can be led by education and by the Holy Spirit. Third, the contentof Christian nurture should be the Bible. Fourth, through the understanding of content and aim ofChristian nurture, Christian nurture can be understood as content and development. Fifth, through theunderstanding of Christian nurture, Christian educators can get insights of concrete ways for Christiannurture. This expanded understanding of Christian nurture may effectively accomplish the task ofChristian nurture.
Key Words: Christian Nurture, Faith, Maturity, Content. Process, Development, Christian Education