李錦滿 (Hanshin University)
The first association of the Korean Society for the Study of Christian Religious Education, theprimary professional association for Christian Education, was its founding event in Yonsei University ofSeoul in 1961. The association adopted to inspire the educational influences of Korea with the Christianideal; to inspire the faithful influences of our country with the educational ideal; and to keep before thepublic mind the ideal of Christian education, and the sense of its need and value.The first Journal the Korean Society for the Study of Christian Religious Education was introduced in1996. The Korean Society for the Study of Christian Religious Education have published 15 volumes.Journal articles included discussions of Christian education in a wide variety of environments: universitiesand colleges, seminaries, churches and church schools, mission schools. Professional textbooks werepublished for the students of Christian education.The Korean Society for the Study of Christian Religious Education continues, through its journal andits conferences, to be a forum where Christian educators from the progressive perspective, conservativevalue, is sharing insights and concerns.The Korean Society for the Study of Christian Religious Education have attempted to encourageacademic discussions that challenges the boundaries between disciplines and pushes forward into theexploration of current issues to provide an alternative paradigm for the theory and practice of Christianeducation in the Korean context.The author reviewed the articles for the current volumes sixteen. It is author's hope that Journal the KoreanSociety for the Study of Christian Religious Education will be open to those who wish to study inclusiveChristian education. I wish also to sincerely thank all involved in seeing this significant work to fruition.
Key words: Christian Education in Korea, Grace, Life, Serving
A Relational Model of Interdisciplinary Methodology in Practical Theology:Focusing on the Doctrine of Sin
Shin-geun Jang(Presbyterian College and Theological Seminary)
This study aims to propose a relational model of interdisciplinary methodology in practical theology,centered on the doctrine of sin. In order to achieve this aim chapter one initially explores WolfhartPannenberg’s fundamental theological approach to sin that is characterized by sin as a pregiven existentialstructure of human beings. Chapter two then deals with the critical conversation between Pannenberg’sunderstanding of sin and the Kierkegaardian approach to sin that is featured by the notion of“elationality.”Chapter three poses a model of relational interdisciplinary methodology of practical theologybased on the Kierkegaardian relationality in conjunction with Karl Barth’s Chalcedonian-asymmetrical orderthat originated from his interpretation of Jesus’ divine and human natures. In this relational model, we canfind such interdisciplinary principles as “ndissoluble differentiation,”“he inseparable unity,”and“ndestructible order”in making conversation between practical theology and non theological disciplines.Finally, chapter four shows how this interdisciplinary method can be employed in Christian education,focusing on catechetical instruction for adults in the local congregation.
Key words: relational model, interdisciplinary methodology, doctrine of sin, Pannenberg, Kierkegaard, relationality, Chalcedonian-asymmetrical order, catechetical instruction
Christian Education in Ethical Perspectives
Hyun-Sook Kim (Yonsei University))
This article explores ethical perspectives which provide critical foundations for a Christianunderstanding of morality. Christian education help people understand themselves and make sense of theirlives in society. The close relationship between Christian education and ethics has weakened recently intheological work. Exploration of the philosophical and theological ethical perspectives of German socialand political theorist Jurgen Habermas’ ethics and H. Richard Niebuhr’s theological, responsible ethicsmay shed light on our problems. Based on this explanation, a critical correlation of social and politicalethics with theological ethics may provide ethical implications for Christian education. These two theoriesof ethics may provide Christian educators with ethical foundations with which to enable and encourageChristians to play a more active role in the post-modern context.
Key words: Christian ethics, deontological ethics, contextual ethics, Habermas, H. Richard Niebuhr
Andragogical Learning and Teaching Theory in Christian Adult Education
Jeong Gi Lee (Baekseok University)
Theory is important. A theory is a set of assumptions or beliefs that we have about an idea or anactivity. Theories can be simple or complex; however, we cannot escape theories. Theories are powerfulforces in teaching and learning situation. All Christian adult educators have some theories that guide howthey teach others to learn. A quality theory of teaching involves a quality view of learning. Christianadult educators cannot teach effectively if they do not have a clear understanding of the principles ofChristian adult education and learning process.This study explores four concepts related to adult education including: (1) a general overview ofandragogical teaching and learning theory as related to adult learners; (2) the modern practice of adulteducation; and (3) the Principles of Adult Learning Scale(PALS). (4) The idea of Christian higher education
Key words: Adult education, Learning and Teaching Theory, Andragogical approach,Principles of Adult Learning Scale(PALS)
Parental Involvement and Christian Education:
A Case Study of Korean Immigrant Family
Byung-June Hwang (Hoseo University)
This study examines the characteristics of parental involvement in their children’s education andexplores the factors which contribute to a pattern of parental involvement among Korean families. Thisstudy investigates the variables as analytical tools that describe the nature of parental educationalaspiration, difficulties and barriers to participate in their child’s education, and social capital as parentalnetwork. This study used qualitative interviews and its coding process as following a model of“naturalistic paradigm.” For the sample, this study selected Korean immigrant parents and teachers in amedium-sized city in the southeastern United States. Results show that the biggest barrier for Koreanimmigrant parents to participate in their child’s education was cultural deficit or cultural difference asthey confront their child’s teacher. It is cultural difference that the relationship between teacher andparents is vertical or hierarchical in Korea, whereas in the U.S. the relationship between teacher andparent is more like horizontal or equal. Korean immigrant parents have also difficulties to participation intheir child’s schooling because of their language skills, lack of school information, and no time. Theycommunicate with teachers by written document such as a notice they prepared at home, email byinternet, or letter. Most of Korean immigrant parents in this study tried to visit and talk with theirteachers individually. For the new families to the U.S., social network was considered to be essential andhelpful. Korean immigrant parents in this study had their homogeneous ethnic group network. However,the relationships were not maintained continuously because of the lack of correct school information andcompetitive consciousness among Korean parents.
Key words: Parental Involvement, Educational Aspiration, Cultural Difference, Social Capita and Social Network, Immigrant Parental Involvement
Paulo Freire and Jack Mezirow’s Educational Theories
and Integration into Christian Adult Education
Eun Seung Lee (Sungkyul University)
In comparison with children and teenagers, adults have accumulated a foundation of knowledge andlife experiences. They need to connect to learning to this knowledge and experience base. While adultsare autonomous and self-directed, they also need to be free in order to share their stories and directthemselves. However, the traditional approaches to Christian adult education are generally limited toteaching theological principles and doctrines through teacher-centered, lecture-oriented modalities. Freireand Mezirow’s educational theories aim to create an environment that puts the adult learners in greatcontrol of their learning situation, by empowering them with the tools and information to make decisionsabout their own directions based on critical thought and reflection. Their theories address some criticalconcerns to the churches as approaches for adult education.This study deals with three concepts that is attributed to Christian adult education. The first of theseconcepts is that churches are challenged to consider the value of life-related learning, which is the bestapproach to engage in generative learning because learning and life are two coordinates which start andend together. The second concept that Freire and Mezirow have developed is that of the horizontalteacher-learner relationship, which is seldom valued in the Korean church adult education. Freire andMezirow view the role of the teacher as a facilitator and see learner as a co-investigator of knowledge,reality, and truth, The teacher, as a facilitator, constantly reform his reflections in the reflection of thelearners. The third concept is that of fostering a dialogical learning community in teaching-learningprocess as an important approach that helps a person grow towards maturity as a Christian in all areasof life. Lecture has been a primary modality in traditional church education. For Freire and Mezirow,however, dialogue that promotes critical reflection and transformation among people replaces lecture asthe primary modality. In this sense, this article explores Freire and Mezirow’s educational concepts thatimpact directions in adult education and discusses how educational philosophy of both theories can beintegrated into Christian adult education.
Key words: Adult education, Freire and Mezirow, Banking education, Life-relatedlearning, Facilitator, Dialog, Dialogical learning community
Behinderte in der Konfirmandenarbeit
Yong-Sun Cho (Seoul Presbyterian University)
Bei dieser Untersuchung handelt sich um die Konfirmandenarbeit mit Behinderten. Die Konfirmandenarbeit steht bei den koreanischen Kirchengemeinden nur am Rande der Interessen. Jugendliche mitBehinderungen haben fast nie am Konfirmandenunterricht teilgenommen. Konfirmation der Behindertenwurde in Gemeinde kaum wahrgenommen.Dadurch, dass die Konfirmandenarbeit mit der Behinderung im Raum der evangelischen KircheDeutschland (EKD) untersucht wird, werden Anregungen zur Erneuerung der Konfirmandenarbeit versucht.In der EKD wurde auch in der Vergangenheit die Konfirmation der Geistigbehinderten vernachlässigt.Aber heute erfolgt eine grundsätzliche Zustimmung zur Konfirmation.Geistigbehinderte erfahren in intergrativer Konfirmandenarbeit ebenso wie die anderen Jugendlichenauch. Integration der Behinderten bedeutet Kommunikation, offene Lernprozesse und Teilhaben. Unterrichtsortist ein Familienhaus, Schule oder Gemeindehaus. Geistigbehinderte werden zu Hause im Rahmen einerFamilienfeier, in Kirchengemeinden des Schulpfarrers oder in Heimatgemeinde konfirmiert. Es ist sehrnotwendig, entweder die Eltern von Behinderten zur Mitarbeit zu ermutigen, oder die Eltern Geistigbehindertezum Unterricht und Gottesdienst abzuholen. Um die Themen des Konfirmandenunterrichts zu bestimmen,sollte man über Kriterien Elementarisierung, Beziehungsorientierung, Identitätsfindung und Erfahrungsorientierungnachdenken. In der EKD wird Konfirmation eher Bestätigung als feierlicher Abschluss sowie eineFamilienfeier gesehen. Teilname am Abendmahl und Segnung werden als wichtige Elemente desKonfirmationsgottesdienstes empfunden.
Key words: Konfirmandenarbeit, Jugendliche mit Behinderung, Geistigbehinderte, Konfir mandenarbeit in EKD
und Symboldidaktik: Alternative oder Ergänzung?
Sung-Hyun Sohn (Methodist Theological Seminary)
In the currently exposed academic papers about the history of religious education in Germany it isoften postulated that the problem oriented religious education and the symbol didactics stay in anantagonistic relation to each other. But the assumption that the ethical agenda of the former and theaesthetical impulses of the latter should be exclusively chosen is not able to be accepted any more. Inthe dialogue with Peter Biehl, one of the most influential religious pedagogues in Germany, we reach theinsight that the cooperation of both models is not only possible but also necessary in front of the currentchallenges in the practice and the theory of religious education. A purely ethical and socio politicallyoriented education or a radical emphasis on aesthetical dimensions in the religious learning process willnot suffice. The research on the interplays of the problem oriented religious education and the symboldidactics will lead to the various possibilities that the aesthetics and ethics one another.
Key words: religious education in Germany, the problem oriented religious education,the symbol didactics, ethical education, aesthetical education
Children’s God Concepts through Open-ended Questions
Sungwon Kim (Chongsin University)
Research secured qualitative research regarding children’s God concept. The researcher asked tenopen-ended questions and a drawing prompt to explore children's in-depth God concepts. One hundredforty children from large Southern Baptist churches in Tarrant County, TX participated to reveal theirthoughts about God. For example, children answered the question, “Is God like your mother?” with thefollowing responses: “yes” by 76 children; “no” by 57 children; “both” by 5 children; and otherresponses by 2 children. The following are the reasons for their answers: “They love, care, help, andwatch over me” by 47 children; “They made me” by 14 children; “They discipline me” by 3 children;“God is not a woman” by 35 children; “My mother is absent of divine attributes” by 6 children; andother responses by 35 children. Children’s answers revealed their deep thoughts concerning God andshowed differences in different ways with which structured-questions would not show.
Key words: God concept, Children, A structured questionnaire, Open-ended questions
Significance of Feminist Epistemology in Christian Religious Education:Knowledge as a Learning Experience Calls for Community as a Producer of Knowledge
Inock Kim Ju(Presbyterian College and Theological Seminary)
This paper introduces an attempt of feminist theorists to make sense of traditional philosophers from acontemporary standpoint. What comes about as a result of this effort is the construction of feministepistemology. Consequently, another conversation must follow in which a conversation with post-modernphilosophers more clearly delineates our search of knowledge that helps us understand God, the worldand ourselves. Using our everyday life experiences as the source of valuable knowledge requires arelationship between a knowing subject(knower) and the object(known) while taking subjectivity seriously.This kind of knowledge also fully advocates objectivity with a socially situated standpoint. A dialoguebetween feminist theorists and post-modern philosophers reaches a consensus about the need forcommunity to be a producer of knowledge, while at the same time, a particular individual in thecommunity coexists as ‘knower’ and ‘known,’ and is encouraged to be an agent of knowledge. Finally,feminist epistemology brings together “strange”and “normal,” “the power” and “the powerless,” or“main”and “peripheral,” which will set an example of how to be together for the faith community.
Key words: standpoint, feminist epistemology, subjectivity, objectivity, body, conversation