The Study of the Existence and Fulfillment of the Great Commission in the Old Testament from the Perspective of the History of Redemption: A Study of Gen. 18:19 and ‘Shema’ from the Viewpoint of Christian Education
Yong-Soo Hyun(Sungsan Hyo Graduate School)
The writer proposes to have uncovered the forgotten ‘Great Commission’ of the Old Testament, which is found in the OT ‘Shema,’ which calls followers to teach their children and make them disciples (Gen. 18:19; Deut. 6:4-9) for the next generation. This contrasts the Great Commission of the NT, which calls followers to go to all the nations to teach them and make them His disciples (Mt. 28:19-20a). If the OT Great Commission of Shema relates to parental ministry of in nurturing children at home, the NT Great Commission relates to the pastoral ministry for church members who have been evangelized through the Church. Moreover, the OT Great Commission prepared for the first coming of Jesus ‘vertically’ by conveying the Word of God on generation after generation, while the NT Great Commission spreads the Gospel of Jesus ‘horizontally’ to all nations. Just as the OT and the NT complement each other, so do the two Great Commissions in both Testaments - the family ministry and the church ministry -complete each other, thus fulfilling God’s plan of redemption. Therefore, in the NT era, both Great Commissions should be obeyed in balance and harmony to make children disciples of Jesus at home, save more Christians in the world, and prepare for the second coming of Jesus Christ.
Key words: The Great Commission of the OT and NT, Christian education theology, Shema, Family ministry, Church ministry, Horizontal evangelism, Vertical evangelism.
Beyond Prejudice and Violence: Peace Education for Adolescent-Becoming-Young Adults in the Post-modern World
Sung-Joo Oh (Methodist Theological School)
This article is about how we can provide church with peace education programs for the adolescent-becoming-young adult in post-modern culture. The reason why the author would like to research this question is that school violence in Korea has been getting increased very seriously and widespreadly and most of it has been committed by the youth. The author regards that such youth violence disproportionately affects youth ages and disappointedly results in such the problems as injury, death, psychological harm, mal-development, or deprivation. Thus the author begins with the questions about who the youth is, what kinds of characteristic the youth has, and what the crucial causes of violence are. So he focuses on the specific-transitional age of the adolescent-becoming-young adult between ages of 16 and of 25. Looking at many socio-psychologists' theory such as Erik H. Erickson’s, Lawrence Kohlberg’s, James W. Fowler’s, Sharon Parks', and Daniel Levinson’s one, first of all, the author describes the psychological characteristics of the adolescent-becoming-young adult. Through / by their theories, the author summarizes the characteristics of theadolescent-becoming-young adult as three important factors: independence, identity, and intimacy. And also the author depicts a concept of prejudice as one of the causes of violence, and researcheswhat prejudice is and how to be related to violence in that age. Particularly from both Gordon W.Allport’s brief definition of prejudice and socio-psychologists’ explanation of the youth characteristics, theauthor brings out that the age is apt to be more repressed, defensive, aggressive and to have a moreprejudiced mental life than the other ages. By the author, their vulnerability, dichotomy, and estrangementresulting from the socio-psychological problems in that age are closely regarded as the development ofprejudice and discrimination.Futhermore, the author develops the issue of youth prejudice into an educational approach, peaceeducation in church, that will contribute to overcoming(or reducing) youth prejudice. He is convinced thatthe prejudice issue in this age is one of the most crucial subjects in church to teach new generations inthe age of globalization and post-modern culture. In conclusion, therefore, the author shows conceptuallyhow to approach the peace and justice education beyond prejudice and violence in youth ministry. For the peace education beyond prejudice and violence, he suggests briefly the educational process ofnon-authoritarian, Christian tolerance, self-esteem, cross-cultural experience, and diversity in church.
Key words: adolescent-becoming-young adult, violence, prejudice, structural developmentalist, socio-psychologists, independence, identity, intimacy, post-modern culture, vulnerability, dichotomy, estrangement, peace education, church, ministry
Zugang zur Moglichkeit des kindgemaßen Horens: eine Untersuchung uber die Konzeption “immanentes Verstehen” Martin Rangs
Won-Seok Koh (Busan Presbyterian University)
Bei dieser Untersuchung handelt es sich um das immanentes Verstehen, eine didaktische KonzeptionMartin Rangs, des deutschen Religionspadagogen. Rang stellt aus anthropologischer Perspektive die eigeneSeinsweise des Kindes heraus, die der des Erwachsenen gegenuber steht. Die kindlichen Eigenschaften seienkeineswegs nur Zeichen der Mangelhaftigkeit und Unfahigkeit, sondern Ausdruck der naturlichen Existenzim Lebensvertrauen, der Freiheit des Ich und der Offenheit des Menschen. Insofern ist die kindlicheExistenz ein Gegenbild, das der Erwachsene in seiner widerspruchlichen Lebenssituation verloren hat.Dementsprechend sind das Sundenverstandnis und der Glaube des Kindes auch vollig anders als die desErwachsenen. In diesem Zusammenhang scheint ihm der auf den Kindern zielende sogenanntenErlosungsglaube nicht geeignet, weshalb er die Vergebung thematisiert, bei der es sich um dieWiederherstellung gestorter Beziehungen handelt. Das Kind kann in seinem Leben die entsprechendeErfahrung zum Verstandnis der Vergebung haben, z.B. die der Freundschaft. In dieser Hinsicht nennt Rangdas kindliche Glaubensverstandnis “Liebe zu Jesus” im Sinne der aktiven Sehnsucht nach der personlichenund lebendigen Beziehung und Freundschaft mit Jesus. Es ist Aufgabe des Religionsunterricht, die Liebe zuJesus im Kinderherzen zu entzunden. Dafur stellt Rang einen Begriff “immantes Verstehen” hervor.Das immanente Verstehen Rangs ist kein begrifflich-allgemeines, sondern konkretes Verstehen, das dieKinder in ihrem Alltagsleben bewaltigen konnen. Analog zur Behandlung des Dramas bemuht sich dieUnterrichtshandlung darum, die Schuler in die dramatisch zu verstehende Welt der biblischen Geschichtehineinzufuhren und dabei eine dramatische Spannungsfahigkeit des Denkens zu erzeugen, so dass siegefuhlsmaßig die konkrete Geschichte im Zusammenhang mit der ganzen verstehen konnen. Bei Rangkommen zwei sich des immanenten Verstehens bedienende Unterrichtsformen vor: die Arbeitsform fur das“ahnende” und die Andachtsform fur das “gefuhlsmaßige” Verstehen. Die Arbeitsform konzentriert sichdurch das Unterrichtsgesprach bzw. die Besprechung auf die nuchterne und konkrete Bibelarbeit. Dabeigeht es zum einen um die “außere Anschaulichkeit”, um ihre sinnbildliche Bedeutung erkennen zu konnen. Zum anderen um die “innere Beziehung”, welche die Erfahrung der Grenzsituation bzw. des innerenKonflikts der Personen der biblischen Geschichte zum Verstandnis bringt und insofern den Ubergang zuminneren Verstehen uber die außeren Kenntnisse hinaus bezeichnet. Auf der Basis der Arbeitsform imUnterrichtsgesprach kommt die Andachtsform des Religionsunterrichts im Gang. Die Andachtsform bemuhtsich um das echte Horen des Wortes Gottes durch die dichterische Erzahlung von der biblischenGeschichte, bei der es um gefuhlsmaßiges und asthetisches Verstehen geht. Durch die wiederholende, bzw.das Vergessene wieder herstellende und feierliche Erzahlung erweitert und vertieft die biblische Geschichteihren Problemhorizont und bringt den Ubergang vom Denken zum Handeln, von der Moglichkeit zurWirklichkeit in Gang.
Key words: immanentes Verstehen, kindgemaßes Lernen, Kindertheologie, echtes Horen des Wortes Gottes, kindgemaßer Religionsunterricht
The Theoretical Foundations of Learning Therapy Based on Brain Science and Educational Psychology
Tack-Joe Kwon (Asia United Theological University)
This study, giving a positive answer to the question, “Does it make any sense to postulate thatlearning helps people to live healthy lives, experiencing physical, mental, or / and spiritual healings?”,assumes that learning affects learners to live healthy lives. The increasing tendency of conductingresearch on brain science in the 21st century has been resulting in focusing on the importance of brainhealth.This study attempts to lay out the theoretical foundations of learning therapy based on brain science,discussing and presenting the positive relationship between learning and brain health. This study isplacing an emphasis on articulating the assumption that learning is not an obstacle to health, but aprocess of promoting therapeutic environment resulting in a good health by laying out the theoreticalfoundations of learning therapy. Conducting a research on the relationship between learning and health byintegrating brain science into educational psychology, this study presents “brain triad”, a new term coinedin this study, as a proper learning for a more effective outcome of learning therapy.A proper learning practiced according to the concept of brain triad is expecting to form and promotea therapeutic process for the learner to experience a holistic healing. Learning therapy is to be effectiveat least on two tracks. One is educational tract on which learning brings about a holistic healing bydeveloping the brain, making it healthy, the other being brain scientific track on which learning bringsabout a holistic healing by a balanced hormone secretion, making the brain healthy. The findings of thisstudy assert that a proper learning practiced according to such a concept as brain triad is helpful for aleaner to be healed or / and healthy, encouraging people to learn, which could be a new paradigm ofeducation.
Key words: Learning Therapy, Logotherapy, Brain Science, Educational Psychology, BrainTriad, God Spot, Spiritual Domain
The Place of Theology in Religious Education:
A Study of James Michael Lee and Randolph Crump Miller
HyeRan Kim-Cragg (Hanshin University)
The purpose of this essay is to examine the place of theology in religious education in the 21stcentury. By discussing the work of James Michael Lee and that of Randolph Crump 6Miller, a readermay get a sense of two different positions, Lee arguing the independent function of religious educationin relation to that of theology, while Miller arguing the interdependent role of theology in religiouseducation. Then, the essay attempts to demonstrate that theology has a crucial role in religious educationas long as theology is concerned with the whole well－being of human experiences and their contexts.Finally, it proposes tasks for developing a religious education that is relevant to contemporary theologiesand relevant to contemporary Korean contexts. Such tasks involve in criticizing the out－dated theologiesand constructing a theology that is rooted in ordinary peoples’ experiences towards holistic religiouseducation.
key Words: James Michael Lee, Randolph Crump Miller, the place of theology, religious,
instruction, process theology, postcolonialism, holistic Christian education
The Way of Biblical Education for Holiness in the Perspective of Interfaith
Geum-Man Lee (HanShin University)
Holiness is essentially the notion that wholes, or at least some wholes, are more than merely the sumof their parts. It is a historical and communal. Holiness demands congruence between one’s convictionand action. It means liberation from ignorance and for full consciousness, joy, integration, transformation.Biblical education for holiness accentuates solidarity, sharing life, with those who suffer poverty,rejection, and injustice. The goal of educating in holiness is to help people experience the unity of theBiblical event and of humankind and to participate in the service of God’s people through prayer,worship, celebration, and learning experiences of suffering love.The methods for education for holiness are varied: Bible study of the hermeneutics, whole-braincentered brain Bible study, theological Bible study, Bible study of critical reflections and dialogue, andspectrum Bible study. Its goal is to free every Christian, congregation from isolation or the narrowconfines of one group, nation, or tribe, and so free them to live the universal faith in company with allGod’s people.
Key words: Biblical Education, Holiness, Interfaith
A Mission of the Christian Education: Removal of the Monologic Golden Crown
Mi-kyung Lee (Methodist Theological Seminary)
This thesis aims for a paradigm shift of the Christian education from monologism based onschooling-instruction to dialogism based on a transactional communication. If the transactional dimensionof dialogue is deprived in educational activities, learners become nothing but passive receivers oronlookers, not participative subjects. For this reason, a community of faith needs a “dialogical” Christianeducation. This thesis probes for four basic principles to fashion the dialogical Christian education: (1)otherness and a surplus of seeing, (2) double-voiced discourse, (3) unfinalizability and blank space, (4)polyphony and dialogical conflict. Because an dialogue is a simultaneous dialogue of two (or more)different voices, the Christian education should be able to deal with the matters of differences andconflicts between them.Therefore, a nest task of this thesis is to explore how to deal with differences and conflicts byexploring the technique of “dialogical clashes”, “polyphonic dialogue” among characters in theGold-Crowned Jesus. In this process, this thesis finally proposes the dialogical Christian education whichaccepts the other, affirms conflict and difference as factors to get to conjunctive stage of Fowler’s faithdevelopment as well as a starting point for dialogue, and practices Christian “love” in a faith community.
Key Words: dialogism, double-voiced discourse, difference and conflict, polyphony, gold-crowned Jesus, Christian education.
Rediscovering the Function of Teaching as found in the New Testament through Biblical Reflection
Chul-Seung Lee (Taeshin Christian University)
Today, Korean Christians are in conflict as they need to encompass secular elements, as well as aplurality of educational theories as these pertain to contemporary society. Public education has stressed abasic humanism without God being a part of its evolution. In such a situation, there lies a greatweakness within learners in the lack of integration between truth and life. Therefore, the exploration ofbiblical reflection provides an essential yardstick for Christian education.In the New Testament, the value of teaching is found. Teaching began with Jesus. His teaching wasnot simply based on ethical instruction or moral exhortation. He taught God’s message authoritatively.After His death and resurrection, His disciples succeeded Him as teachers. In biblical reflection, thechallenge of the function of teaching concerns what it means to feel, to think, and to act as one who isin Christ, as the disciples, and as workers for the Kingdom of God.
key Words: Teaching, New Testament, Jesus, Teacher, Gospel, Paul, James.
Reflections on Christian Schooling in Korea on the basis of Calvinist Day School Movements in North America
Hwa-Seon Chang (Anyang University)
This article explores a study on the Christian Schooling Movement in Korea through a discussion ofCalvinist Day Schools in North America. The Calvinistic Day Schools were the cradle of God’s churchand the origin of Christian Schools in America. This paper describes the roots of Calvinist Day Schools,their biblical foundations, and the distinctiveness of the Calvinistic Day Schools Movements. It also offerssome reflections for Christian schooling in Korea.The first chapter explains the two roots of Calvinist Day Schools which are discussed in this paper:the cultural and ecclesiastical roots. The second chapter describes the biblical foundations of Calvinist DaySchools. Sovereignty of God and social spheres, covenant, revelation, and cultural mandate are allimportant aspects regarding biblical foundations. The third chapter relates the distinctiveness of theCalvinist Day Schools which focus on the locus of educational authority, the aim of education, curriculumintegration, and concerns about Christian community. Finally, the fourth chapter of this paper attempts toreflect on the implications of Christian Day Schools in Korea: parent’s education, teacher education,developing textbooks, and supporting parents and Christian schools. In conclusion, this paper suggests thatthe Christian schooling Movements in Korea should be based upon biblical foundations and parents mustlearn theological foundations for Christian schooling in order to be successful. The Korean church needsto encourage Christian schools and support parents to have a mission of Christian schooling.
Key words: Christian schooling, Christian schooling movements, Calvinist Day school
The Role of Father in Christian Education:
A Child’s Image of God through Father’s Education
Byung-June Hwang (Hoseo University)
This article discusses an approach to the connection between the father’s role and imaginative faith inchild development. A child’s faith begins at home within the context of the family. Both father and motherprovide important ingredients for early faith development of children, and the father’s role in the child’sfaith development is as important as the mother’s role. At a very early age, a baby begins to develop theimage of God and worldview with his / her socialization by interacting successfully with other people.Increasingly, effective parenting in the home should be considered to be one of the significant issues forthe community of faith as well as for parents. Teaching for effective fathering in the home is one of themost important tasks in Christian education in our time. This study discusses generative fatherhood basedon Erik H. Erikson’s and John Snarey’s understanding of fatherhood. It explains the father’s influence in achild’s coping with strange adults and with his / her new peers. This study also describes a way tounderstand faith development in early childhood based on Fowler’s understanding of selfhood developmentas well as faith. It also discusses a child’s first realization of God and suggests the father’s role and imagefor a child’s image of God derived from faith and selfhood development. Finally, developing a theologicalconcept of fatherhood in the Korean context explores the understanding of the image of father biblicallyand theologically. This study uses Thomas Groome’s methodology, “Shared Christian Praxis” for exploring asuitable image of father in the Korean context.
Key words: A child’s image of God, Selfhood development, Generative fatherhood, Role of father, Effective parenting, Father’s education